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By John G. Webster (Editor)

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Static creep in electronic package interconnects is quite different from that traditionally observed under a constant load, characterized by primary, secondary, and tertiary stages. In solder interconnects, the initially applied stress normal to the solder joint decreases as the cross-sectional area increases due to creep. Generally, the stresses involved in solder bump creep are low, which is in the realm of elastic strain and microcreep, controlled by grain boundary diffusion. Therefore we do not explore creep behavior outside the realm of microelectronics applications.

Spheric pressure, the fatigue life was determined by thermal cycling between Ϫ10Њ to 100ЊC at 20 to 46 cycles per day (cpd). The cycles to failure Nf can be expressed by Nf = M/(1 + cm ) (29) where Temperature Profile Shape. For a square profile, stress relaxation occurs mainly at the maximum temperature of the cycle, which is reached rather quickly. In such an extreme case, the stress relaxation time above threshold is shorter and therefore corresponds to a higher threshold frequency. Thus a square-cycle frequency has a greater effect on fatigue than a sinusoidal frequency, which is addressed in the model by normalizing the cycle frequency to f th: Nf = Aγ −2 ( f / f th )1/3 eφ/Tm (26) where f th is determined by Eq.

The delay time, calculated from Crank (35), gives the amount diffused as a function of time: Polymer Film or Underfill Protection Corrosion in the presence of a polymeric coating or an underfill is attenuated because of the polymeric protection. However, cleanliness of the interface and a strong bond are essential. If the interface is a continuous network of polymer bonds without gaps or contamination, the chance of corrosion is remote. In such an ideal situation, the polymer absorbs water until it saturates to the level dictated by the outside vapor pressure, acccording to Henry’s law.

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52.Reliability by John G. Webster (Editor)

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