Read e-book online A New History of Life: The Radical New Discoveries about the PDF

By Peter D. Ward, Joe Kirschvink

ISBN-10: 1608199088

ISBN-13: 9781608199082

Charles Darwin's theories, first released greater than a hundred and fifty years in the past, shape the spine of the way we comprehend the background of the Earth. in fact, the presently permitted background of existence in the world is so improper, so outdated, that it's previous time we'd like a 'New heritage of Life.'

In their most modern booklet, Joe Kirschvink and Peter Ward will exhibit that lots of our such a lot loved ideals in regards to the evolution of existence are improper. accumulating and interpreting years of discoveries and study now not but widely recognized to the general public, a brand new background of existence proposes a unique starting place of species than the single Darwin proposed, one that comprises eight-foot-long centipedes, a frozen "snowball Earth," and the seeds for all times originating on Mars.

Drawing on their years of expertise in paleontology, biology, chemistry, and astrobiology, specialists Ward and Kirschvink paint an image of the origins existence in the world which are immediately too amazing to visualize and too general to dismiss—and taking a look ahead, a brand new heritage of existence brilliantly assembles insights from a number of the most up-to-date clinical examine to appreciate how lifestyles on the earth can and can evolve some distance into the longer term.

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Additional info for A New History of Life: The Radical New Discoveries about the Origins and Evolution of Life on Earth

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Later, however, mainly on morphological grounds, Brues accepted that the Terebrantia were derived directly from the Phytophaga, asserting that 'the transition from phytophagy to parasitism is perfectly clear'. Whether this implies carnivorous or sarcophagous feeding is a matter for guesswork (Brues, 1921). In his view, the suggestion that the larvae of the first Terebrantia sought their prey after hatching out and fed on them (as carnivores) 'seems far more likely'. e. the Phytophaga), except a few adult sawflies which feed in this way.

In general, it is accepted that the larvae of the Gasteruptiidae live as ectoparasites on the adult larvae of solitary bees and wasps. Meanwhile we have no information on their eggs, the method and place GENESIS OF THE TEREBRANTIA 43 of oviposition, the newly hatched larva and its feeding, the feeding of the growing larvae, or their age changes. , and which A. P. Semenov-Tian-Shanskii kindly identified as Gasteruption caudatum Szepl. A published report of this discovery, accompanied by a good photograph (Figure 18) (Malyshev, 1937, 1949b), remained unnoticed, however, possibly because it conflicted with the prevailing opinion on this subject.

Use of this term avoids the formal confusion which arises from introduction of the unsuitable name 'Hymenoptera parasitica', and in future I shall use the term Terebrantia in this wide sense. In the Western literature the same concept is expressed by such terms as Ichneumon-flies, Portetarieres, or simply Terebrantes. Hypotheses on the Origin of the Terebrantia With respect to the relationships between the three principal suborders, all authors are agreed that the Hymenoptera phytophaga are the most primitive in structure and behaviour and stand closest to the ancestors of the order Hymenoptera.

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A New History of Life: The Radical New Discoveries about the Origins and Evolution of Life on Earth by Peter D. Ward, Joe Kirschvink

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